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### Defining arrays & multi-dimensional arrays using literal notation

Up until JavaScript 1.2, defining an array meant the simple choice between using conventional or dense arrays. But there's a new kid in town, and it's showing up in more and more scripts where arrays are used intensively. What could it be? What else is there? In this tutorial, we look at literal notation- the new-age way of defining an array.

#### Literal notation- an overview

Literal notation is a form of array declaration introduced in JavaScript 1.2. Like the language version, it's supported by 4th+ generations of both IE and NS. In other words, all modern browsers.

To declare a literal notation (array), start out with square brackets, then enclose each participating value inside, separated by commas:

`var myarray=["Joe", "Bob", "Ken"]`

Once declared, a literal notation behaves very much like a normal array, so to call to Joe, you would use:

`alert(myarray[0]) //Yo Joe what's up?`

At this point, we can all discern at least one merit of literal notation- its compact syntax . Literal notation puts even dense arrays to shame when it comes to quickly declaring an array and populating it with values.

#### Kinds of values literal notation accepts

Ok, moving on, lets explain the kind of values literal notation supports. Apart from the obvious "string" and "numeric" input, you can also use expressions:

`var myarray=[x+y, 2, Math.round(z)]`

If you can't make up your mind what to enter, undefined values are accepted too, by using a comma (') in place of the value::

`var myarray=[0,,,,5]`

In the above, there are actually 6 array values, except the ones in the center are all undefined. This is useful, for example, if you wish to come back later to dynamically fill in these values, or set up your array for future expansion.

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